Family Office Review, a media company that serves very high net worth investors and their professional advisers, has published an interview with Arixa Capital founder Jan Brzeski. In the article, Jan describes why many established investment companies have turned their attention to investing in single family housing, and explains how Arixa became involved in this market. To access the full article, click here.
Arixa Capital has released a new white paper focused on the U.S. housing market and single family homes as an asset class for investors to consider. The white paper is based on Arixa's concrete experience investing in this area in recent years, working with local operators who buy properties in a specific geographic area, renovate them, and either lease the homes or resell them.
The white paper explains various ways that investors can gain exposure to this asset class, which Warren Buffett recently endorsed as underpriced and attractive. The author explains the advantages and disadvantages of various investment strategies for both active and passive investors.
The white paper also explains that the activity of thousands of local operators is already helping to work through the backlog of foreclosed homes. Attracted by appealing profits, local operators will help the housing market to heal over the next several years. Policies that aim to solve the problem on a mass scale are neither needed nor advisable.
For a copy of our white paper, please click here.
This edition of Arixa's newsletter includes:
- The growth of our investment programs and the launch of our second fund
- Our annual panel discussion at UCLA in conjunction with the Ziman Center and the Anderson School
- An update on Arixa's first assignment as a court-appointed receiver; and
- Information on a new white paper by Jan Brzeski
To all who registered for and/or attended our event last week, thank you for coming. If you were able to attend, we hope you found it valuable. If you are interested in the photos that were taken of the event, please click here.
To read more about the event, please click here.
The unique value proposition for this event series is the high quality networking and educational opportunity combined with the very low registration fee ($15 for pre-registration or $20 at the door). The fact that beer, wine and appetizers are included in the price is also popular with participants.
For those of you who were unable to attend, or would simply like to listen to the discussion again, the UCLA Ziman Center was kind enough to record the event again this year. We plan to post this video very soon, so please check back on this blog for that link.
If you have suggestions for making the event even better next year, or would like to reach us for any other reason, we would love to hear from you. Please email Jan Brzeski at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This year's event is set for Wednesday, February 8 at 6:30 p.m. at the Anderson School. For details, including speakers and registration, please visit the conference website: http://arixacapital.com/conference. What Makes this Event Special Last year, our event drew over 220 attendees for networking, refreshments and a lively panel discussion among some of Southern California's most established and interesting real estate investors. The reason our event has succeeded while other conferences sometimes draw limited attendance include three main factors:
(1) Great Panel. The panel discussion is unusually candid, as we track a core group of investors through the full real estate market cycle. This "longitudinal study" aspect of our event is unique. We are told each year that our panel is one of the best, or the best, among all the California conferences.
(2) The Price is Right. At only $20 per person ($15 with pre-registration), including food, beer and wine, there is no better value than our conference. We thank our key sponsors including the Ziman Center at the Anderson School, and Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, for keeping the cost to a minimum.
(3) Excellent Networking. Our event starts with a one-hour reception during which you will meet valuable contacts in a collegial atmosphere. At the reception and after the discussion, you can meet the panelists and other professionals and investors in our industry.
This podcast outlines a recent loan we originated, secured by a strip shopping center located in Ohio. This loan was compelling based on the income of the property. The attractive income outweighed the negative factor of the property being far from our office.
Jan published a new article on Seeking Alpha last week, entitled "Apartments‚ÄîA Contrarian View." The article analyzes a recent prediction by Moody's Investor Services that apartment values will increase substantially in the next few years. While Jan is not bearish on apartment values, he believes that the projections reveal a substantial misunderstanding of the market and that the projections are very unlikely to prove accurate. To read the article, please click here.
Arixa's latest activities include:
- The growth of our investment programs,
- Upcoming events and Arixa's first assignment as a receiver for a shopping center in Phoenix; and
- Information on our 2012 Real Estate Round Table Discussion
AllAboutAlpha.com is the online publication of the Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst (CAIA) Association. The CAIA is devoted to training investment professionals who focus on alternative asset strategies such as hedge funds, commodities, private equity and real estate. Jan is writing a series of articles about today's real estate investment environment. Because AllAboutAlpha attracts readers from Europe and Asia as well as North America, Jan will curate articles by real estate investment experts from outside the U.S. about which investment strategies are working and why in their respective regions. In Jan's first article, he discusses how yields are compressed for many popular real estate investment strategies, but remain attractive on a risk-adjusted basis for other, less well known strategies. To access Jan's article, "What Los Angeles Traffic Can Teach Us About Investing in Real Estate Today " please click here.
This podcast presents a list of "gotchas"--things that can make what appears to be a good investment actually turn out to be a bad investment, because the income stream ends up being less than what it appears to be. The podcast also presents a critical and at the same time enjoyable step in the process of researching an investment, namely, visiting the property and driving around the property in concentric circles to get a feel for the neighborhood.
Nine years ago I began working full time in the real estate investment field. While I use an HP 12C calculator and I like it a lot, I find it cumbersome to use for common real estate calculations. With a little help from Google, I found the attached spreadsheet online which I have adapted for my own use. Perhaps you will find it useful, too. Please click here to download the excel file.
What is it good for? This spreadsheet comes into play when you are interested in determining the cash flow you will receive from buying income property and financing that purchase with a loan. To do this, it is really helpful to know the mortgage constant for the loan given the interest rate and amortization period. This spreadsheet gives you that information, and it shows you exactly where all the money goes (unlike the HP 12C which just gives you the amount of the payment, if you are able to remember the sequence of buttons to press correctly).
How it works On the tab entitled, "Worksheet," you enter the items in red. Specifically, you need the interest rate on the loan that you can obtain; and the amortization period. You can enter the actual loan amount, although I usually don't bother because I am interested in the mortgage constant, not the actual monthly payment.
Why does the mortgage constant matter so much? As a buyer of income property, investors should be very interested in the relationship between the capitalization rate and the mortgage constant on the loan they can obtain for the acquisition. We like situations where the cap rate is higher than the mortgage constant, because this means our cash-on-cash return will be higher than the cap rate. This situation is known as "positive leverage" in the world of income property investment.
If you are interested in learning more, please contact us and we would be happy to go into more detail on this subject. The topic is addressed in some detail in my book, which is available on Amazon (click here if interested).
In a recent article on Seeking Alpha, Jan explains how investors are buying homes from banks, rehabilitating them, and either re-selling them or renting them. In doing so, they are both earning tidy profits and also performing a crucial service for the recovery of the housing market, by repairing homes that have been through the foreclosure process and have substantial deferred maintenance. To access the article, click here.
Chimera Investment Corporation (CIM) is a $3 billion mortgage REIT with an 18% dividend yield. In an article for Seeking Alpha, Jan Brzeski analyzes Chimera the way we at Arixa Capital would analyze a real estate investment, focusing on the income it generates, the dependability of that income stream, and how the investment is financed. To read this article, please click here.
With a dividend yield of more than 14%, it is hard not to be interested in Annaly Capital (NLY), the largest mortgage REIT. At Arixa Capital we manage a portfolio of real estate loans...a miniature version of a mortgage REIT. In a two-part article for Seeking Alpha, Jan Brzeski applies his expertise as a real estate fund manager to analyzing the risks inherent in Annaly Capital's business model. To read part 1, please click here.
This podcast explains briefly how to look at income property investing, and specifically, how to think about the value of apartments, shopping centers and industrial buildings. Coming up with a good estimate of the property's projected cash flow is the the key to understanding the risk of investing in a trust deed secured by that property.
Jan Brzeski is a contributor to Seeking Alpha. The article below is a copy of what he posted on August 30, 2011. To access his article on Seeking Alpha, please click here. Real estate investors know that generalizations are of little value when describing the real estate investment market. Some markets see rising rents while others see the opposite. Results vary by asset class as well.
Today we are seeing an unusual divergence in values as indicated by the two charts below.
The Broad Commercial Real Estate Market: Still on the Floor The first chart is the Moody's/REAL All Properties commercial real estate index:
The index from which the chart above was made tracks repeat sales of all properties across the U.S. where the sales price was $2.5 million or above.
The Institutional-Quality Commercial Property Market: Bubbly Now let's look at the Green Street Advisors Commercial Price Property Index (CPPI). This index tracks the price at which public REITs are buying and selling real estate. This index also gives higher weight to higher dollar volume transactions, whereas the first index gives equal weight to every transaction (only repeat sales of the same property are tracked in the Moody's/REAL index; the CPPI tracks all large transactions by REITs, including those that are not repeat sales).
Mixed Signals The index of REIT-quality properties is up almost 50% since it hit bottom in early 2009. Meanwhile the broader index that includes many smaller, lower quality properties has actually gone down since 2009.
Consider for a moment that the broader index, which is still near its bottom, includes some large transactions where the price is presumably up 50% from where it was two years ago. This must mean that the prices of all non-large properties are down substantially since two years ago, in order for the broader index to be flat.
Imagine if the Dow Jones Industrial Average were up 50% in the past two years while the Wilshire 5000 Index was flat in the past two years. That is more or less what this data says.
Possible Explanations Let's examine some possible explanations of this dramatic divergence. Note that I am not advocating for the superiority of one or another explanation below, only trying to draw out arguments that could explain what we are seeing.
Explanation #1. The income of Class A buildings has gone up 50% in the past two years, while the income of all commercial property as a whole is flat. This explanation, if true, would be satisfying. It would suggest that the indexes are diverging for sensible reasons. However, that is not the case. On page 4 of the 2010 Annual Report of Vornado Realty Trust, "same store sales" EBITDA for Vornado's office properties rose 3.2%. And that includes more than a 5% increase from Vornado's big investment in the government bubble market of Washington D.C. which benefitted from stimulus spending during the period.
Explanation #2. Large, institutional quality assets are experiencing a bubble and are over-bought. Interest rates for both individual savers and institutional investors such as pension funds are near all-time lows. As investors look for yield, they are buying high quality REIT stocks, driving the dividend yields on those companies to very low levels. In turn, the REITs have issued huge quantities of equity on favorable term. If they only need to pay investors 2-4% dividend yields, they can afford to pay very low capitalization rates (very high prices) when they go shopping to invest the cash they raised. Of course if they are going to pay top dollar, they want to buy only the highest quality properties.
Explanation #3. Smaller properties will from now on be relegated to their appropriate place "on the wrong side of the investment railroad tracks." There has always been a gap between the value of a dollar of cash flow from a San Francisco or New York high rise and a dollar of cash flow from an Ohio shopping center or an Arizona mobile home park. The gap has now widened and will remain huge forever.
My Own Interpretation Personally, I think the rise in REIT stocks, and the related jump in values for top quality real estate assets, is part of a larger flight to safety. Investors are scared. They lost a huge amount of money on real estate in recent years. They need to get back into real estate because there is no way to fund retirement with a 1% or 2% yield from government bonds.
As Warren Buffett said, "be fearful when others are greedy, and be greedy when others are fearful." The best way to apply that advice in commercial real estate today is avoid pricy REIT shares and to embrace the healthy income that can be had from less prestigious properties. Small is beautiful in real estate today.
Disclosure: Our own strategy is to make loans to investors who are buying properties at beaten down prices. This provides healthy income with a margin of safety because the borrower's equity acts as a cushion for our investment in case values fall. I have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.
Jan Brzeski is a contributor to Seeking Alpha. The article below is a copy of what he posted on August 30, 2011. To access his article on Seeking Alpha, please click here. In the first article in this series, we explored how "replacement cost" analysis suggests that single family homes in Phoenix are undervalued, and why they are much more likley to go up in value in coming years, rather than moving down.
In this article, we explore a second, independent, strong signal that single family housing in some areas is undervalued. For this article, we will switch to inland Southern California rather than Phoenix, since I know the rental economics better in this area.
Single Family Rental Economics Below is a home about an hour from Los Angeles that was purchased for a little over $100,000 in early 2010.
The buyers of this home are a father and son team who have purchased about 100 homes in the same area in the past two years. They have sold about sixty homes after rehabilitating them, and they have held onto the other 40 homes to create rental income.
They spent about $13,000 rehabilitating this property, so their total cost basis is about $115,000. Today, the house is rented for $1,450 per month. Assuming one month of vacancy each year, rental income is about $16,000 per year. Operating expenses are about $5,000 per year. Net income is about $11,000 per year. On their cost basis, the owners are getting about a 9.6% cash-on-cash return ($11,000/$115,000).
If they bought a similar home today, in need of repairs, direct from a bank, the market is more competitive and they would pay more--probably $130,000 instead of $100,000. Even so, they would still have well over a 7% cash on cash return. Once rehabbed, the property would be worth in the high $100s. This property is appraised at a retail value of $195,000 today.
A Quick Look At Multifamily Rental Economics Let's compare the single family home "fix-and-rent" strategy with buying apartments.
If one were to buy a 100 unit "Class B" apartment building in the same area as this home, it would trade at a capitalization rate of about 6.5%. That is, the income before debt service would represent a yield of about 6.5% as compared to the purchase price.
Given today's low interest rates on multifamily properties courtesy of Fannie Mae (currently under 5% for a 10-year maturity), the cash-on-cash return would be okay from the apartment property--probably about 5% after accounting for principal payments required by the mortgage, reserves and other factors.
However, if interest rates go up, or Fannie Mae stops subsidizing the apartment market by providing such low rates for apartment owners, the value of such assets could easily drop. Investors look at their cash-on-cash returns after debt service, and apartment values have been driven up by very low interest rates for apartment loans. If these rates were to go higher, apartment values would drop, just like bond values.
The Risk Of Buying Apartments Today The bottom line for apartment investors is, they can enjoy low single digit cash-on-cash returns. However, in my view, there is a substantial chance of capital loss, even if rents keep going up, because higher interest rates will lead to higher capitalization rates which means lower values.
For example, suppose we have a change in cap rates from 6.5% to 7.5% (which is historically a more typical cap rate for Class B apartments in secondary markets). A property with annual cash flow before debt service of $300,000 drops in value from $4.6 million to $4.0 million--a 13% drop in value. Now suppose that the property has a loan of $2.3 million. The $600,000 drop in value now equates to a reduction in equity from $2.3 million to $1.7 million, or a 26% drop in equity.
Apartments are currently a favorite asset class for real estate investors, but as the numbers show, there is real risk for apartment buyers when cap rates are at historic lows, as they are now.
Apartments vs. Single Family Home Rentals If, instead of buying a 100 unit apartment building, one were to purchase, say, 60 homes in the same area, there would be certain advantages and disadvantages.
The apartments would be much easier to manage, since they are all grouped together and there are economies of scale. Also, it is easy to get financing to buy apartments, while financing to buy single family homes as an investment is difficult to find and expensive.
The single family homes have the advantage that the current yield (cap rate) is a little higher than the current yield on apartments. Say, 8% vs. 6.5%. They also have one other important advantage. The homes can be sold individually, and if they are purchased from a bank by an experienced operator, they can be bought at "wholesale" prices.
As a result, a home bought for $130,000 and rehabbed for $15,000, for a total cost basis of $145,000, might be worth $185,000 once it is fixed up, because it can then be purchased by a family and once fixed up, the home will qualify for Fannie Mae or HUD financing (which increases the affordability for families substantially). After accounting for broker fees, there is still maybe $25,000 or $30,000 of equity created in the home, by virtue of a favorable purchase and an efficient rehabilitation, both of which create real value.
By contrast, there is almost no way to purchase apartments at "wholesale cost", at least not within an hour's drive of Los Angeles. Anything worth owning will become a competitive auction led by the large number of opportunistic investors who have been trying to buy apartments since the downturn began. The most common complaint from these savvy investors is that there is too much competition, and not enough product available to buy.
Conclusion Most members of the Seeking Alpha community have no interest in being landlords, let alone being landlords for a portfolio of single family homes. The point of this article is two-fold:
The attractive economics of the "fix-and-rent" market today, as compared with the apartment investment market, suggests that home values are near a floor in the most beaten down areas of the Southwestern U.S. It is hard to see values falling much further when already the numbers are compelling for investors to purchase these properties at current prices, given current rents; and The "fix-and-rent" strategy outlined in this article can be accessed by passive investors as well, but only if they know the right people. The key is to find trustworthy operators with a demonstrated track record, and to be able to structure a mutually favorable program to deliver cash flow and a portion of any equity created to the investors. And to insist that the operators have real "skin in the game" in the form of capital alongside the non-operator investors. The Best Of Times For Single Family Home Investors Who Can Execute
For those seeking to gain exposure to real estate intelligently, "small is beatiful." In other words, unglamorous investments like a portfolio of single family homes in a blue collar neighborhood trumps "trophy properties" like pricy Manhattan office buildings--if one is looking for current cash flow and solid risk-adjusted returns.
Several years from now, many investors will look back at the investments that are being made today by obscure but hard-working teams like the father and son team that bought the property pictured above, and they might ask themselves, "why didn't I put some money into that?"
The answer is, this is a truly contrarian strategy and it is non-scalable, so you won't hear about it from any mainstream firms who need to invest on a large scale.